Difference between revisions of "Licensing"
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Revision as of 10:57, 19 July 2020
Welcome to view an exercise of the many ways of remixing content in Wikidocumentaries and how to license them!
What is this?
What is Wikidocumentaries?
Wikidocumentaries is a maker space for citizen historians. It collects data and content from openly licensed outlets around the world about any topic – people, places, buildings, events and more. The topics cover everything that Wikipedia does, and it is possible to add even more personal, local, or generally less recognized historical topics to Wikidocumentaries.
Wikidocumentaries is made not only for exploration but for reusing the materials that are found in it. It is possible to annotate, correct data, locate and indentify, or use the materials as part of further works. Wikidocumentaries will provide functions and tools for this work.
What is this page?
This is an overview of licensing issues related to existing and imagined reuse opportunities provided by the site. This page is created as an exercise in the Creative Commons Certificates program, but it will remain as an overview and reference chart for guiding our reuse practices.
If you have ideas or questions related to this exercise, please add them to the talk page. (Unfortunately joining the wiki is still a bit of a pain, but please give it a try! You can also mail firstname.lastname@example.org or use any of the other comms methods mentioned in the menu at the bottom of the page.)
Basic types of combining media
In order to specify the licensing conditions for each type of use, we must be clear on the basic concepts affecting copyright and licensing.
A derivative work – it can also be called an adaptation or a remix – is created when one or more works are altered in a way that creates a new work. Derivative works are also created when works are translated, or adapted from one medium to the other, for example when creating a film out of a book.
In order for the resulting work to be protected by copyright, a level of originality must be presented, and the level varies by jurisdiction.
Alterations that produce an adaptation
- Color correcting
- Adapting for another medium
- Syncing a musical work with a moving image is an adaptation regardless of what applicable copyright law may otherwise provide.
- One thing to note is that the data about the media, the metadata, cannot be transformed either unless the rightsholder grants rights to it. Many aggregators now require that the metadata of their partnering institutions must be in CC0 to allow the aggregators to clean, format and enrich the metadata without additional permissions.
- The Creative Commons license condition ND (NoDerivatives) prohibits sharing derivatives of a work. It is still possible to create them, as long as they are not shared.
- CC0 licenses for the metadata makes it easier to combine media metadata.
Not an adaptation
- Technical format-shifting (for example, converting a licensed work from a digital format to a physical copy) is not an adaptation regardless of what applicable copyright law may otherwise provide.
- Fixing minor problems with spelling or punctuation is not an adaptation.
- Reproducing and putting works together into a collection is not an adaptation of the individual works. For example, combining stand-alone essays by several authors into an essay collection for use as an open textbook is a collection and not an adaptation. Most opencourseware is a collection of others’ open educational resources (OER).
- Including an image in connection with text, as in a blog post, a powerpoint, or an article, does not create an adaptation unless the photo itself is adapted.
Part of a collection
The reuse is not considered an adaptation if the new work is not based on or derived from the original work. Instead, the work becomes part of a collection.
In Wikidocumentaries we are interacting with several layers or collections. Images are released by museums, archives and libraries from their collections. At this stage they enter the collections of the aggregators. When Wikidocumentaries reads those images they become part of Wikidocumentaries collections.
None of these transitions changes the images or their copyright status. Wikidocumentaries displays the images along with the attribution to the original creators. Out of courtesy, Wikidocumentaries also displays the originating institution and the aggregator.
- It is not required to apply Creative Commons ShareAlike license to the resulting collection if SA-licensed works are used in it.
- It is possible to use Creative Commons ND-licensed works in the resulting work and combine it with other works.
Reading media to Wikidocumentaries
Wikidocumentaries displays materials from several outlets. These outlets are content aggregators that gather and display material from other organisations. All the source images have their individual copyright status and licenses. Currently Wikidocumentaries only reads media that is compatible with Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA or more open). With more detailed control we could display more content but limit reuse of the content if the licenses do not allow that.
Media is read from the following services
- Finna, the Finnish content aggregator for museums, archives, and libraries. Includes PD, CC-licensed media, and copyrighted media. Media is hosted at the source organizations.
- Wikimedia Commons: Images, maps. Includes PD and CC-licensed media media.
- Creative Commons Search: Images. Includes PD and CC-licensed media media.
- Europeana: Images. Includes PD, CC-licensed media, and copyrighted media. Media is hosted at the source organisations.
- Flickr: Images. Includes PD, CC-licensed media, and copyrighted media.
More content in the future
Storing and reading user-contributed images
The core of Wikidocumentaries is to facilitate weaving personal, less-recognized or local materials into the big data fabric. In order to do so, we need to solve in which services to direct the users to store their materials and how to make them recognizable for reading into Wikidocumentaries. Such services include local history projects such as the Topotheques, or a global service such as Internet Archive, or commercial services like Google Photos. All of them require the materials to be CC licensed in order to make them available for remix at Wikidocumentaries.
Reading more material types
There are many exciting media sources available for reuse, such as newspaper archives, sound libraries, video and film archives, bibliographic resources, full-text literary works, historical maps, data repositories with or without linked data to name a few. Any of them can be used to discovering ever more material and to provide more chances for remixing the works.
Reuse scenarios in Wikidocumentaries
Displaying and distributing
- Displaying the images on a topic page
- Viewing the image metadata
- Uploading an image to Wikimedia Commons
- Downloading an image
- Adding or changing the location an image was shot in
- Annotating and identifying people, things or places in the pictures
- Commenting the pictures
- Tagging the image with available topics
- Translating image caption or description
Creating new works based on other works
Saving a Wikidocumentaries search result display
Wikidocumentaries data is displayed in components. One displays people related to the topic while another displays works depicting the topic. The componenents can be viewed in different ways: visual gallery and list views are currently available, timeline and map views will be created. The data and the resulting imagery in the components can be filtered, faceted and sorted.
Data from different components can be displayed together on a map or a timeline or a combination of them. The configuration of these elements can be saved, and the resulting graphic can be exported. Currently, all data and images used in these components are from Wikimedia projects, which makes them unproblematic. What would be the situation be if more sources were added?
- Are the components remixes = what materials can be displayed in them?
- If they are remixes, are they only problematic when redistributed? Is the configuration data a remix?
This tool does not exist yet, but could be created. The user can pick any image and create a postcard of it by cropping the image, altering the colors, adding text and graphics on top. Graphic styles can imitate styles digitized from material shared on the platform.
- Which copyright statuses, exceptions or licenses are good for the postcard images?
- Is there a difference if the user only creates the postcard, prints it out for herself, or saves it in the system for others to further modify and make use of?
- What is the classification of a digitized/extracted graphic style? Is it a derivative or an independent work?
Mapstories have not been realized yet, either. They are narratives that combine still images, text, map views, audio and video. Each frame includes a combination of several mediatypes, and there are transitions between each frame. Good examples of mapstories are these for example.
- Are the mapstories remixes or collections?
The user can pick any scanned map found via Wikidocumentaries and rectify it. The process produces a distorted map image that aligns with a digital world map and can be used as a layer on top of it. The resulting ground control points can be saved and used to distort the original map again, also in another environment.
- If the distorted map is not saved, only the resulting ground control points, can a ND license be used?
Wikidocumentaries itself is a collection that brings together content and tools. Each of the components has their own copyright status, and Wikidocumentaries service has its own. So do the user contributions on the site.
Wikidocumentaries license is CC BY 4.0, which covers for example the layouts and the original texts.
All user contributions that are considered data, will be licensed with CC0. Any remixes will be licensed with CC BY 4.0.
The user interface translations are created in translatewiki.net and licensed CC BY 3.0.
The source code of the user interface is licensed with GNU General Public License.
- In order to ensure the compatibility of the source materials for remix, they should be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons before they can be remixed.
- There should be a similar normalizing process for user-contributed materials that fall outside the project scope of Wikimedia Commons.
- It is useful to display media with restrictive licensing to be able to identify falsely restricted or licensed works. Their reuse should be limited.
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